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Posted by sno on November 5, 2010, 2:43 pm
 
On 11/5/2010 9:35 AM, dow wrote:

No individual scientist...what makes it a law is that the general
scientific community says it is a law....same with a theory...general
community says when enough experimental evidence has been generated...

One experiment cannot a theory make
But one experiment can a theory break

(One experiment has to be verified by at least one reproduction
so take a minimum of two)

have fun....sno




--
Correct Scientific Terminology:
Hypothesis - a guess as to why or how something occurs
Theory - a hypothesis that has been checked by enough experiments
  to be generally assumed to be true.
Law - a hypothesis that has been checked by enough experiments
  in enough different ways that it is assumed to be truer then a theory.
Note: nothing is proven in science, things are assumed to be true.


Posted by Ahem A Rivet's Shot on November 5, 2010, 2:50 pm
 
On Fri, 5 Nov 2010 07:35:57 -0700 (PDT)


    I refer you to Newton's first and third laws - they are very
precise but they are not quantitative, on the other hand Einstein's special
theory of relativity is quantitative but is not a law.

    Personally I think the term law should be reserved for the real
laws that underpin the behaviour of the universe (which would make Newton's
Principia a theory that the stated items are the laws).

--
Steve O'Hara-Smith                          |   Directable Mirror Arrays
C:>WIN                                      | A better way to focus the sun
The computer obeys and wins.                |    licences available see
You lose and Bill collects.                 |    http://www.sohara.org/

Posted by daestrom on November 5, 2010, 3:26 pm
 On 11/5/2010 10:50 AM, Ahem A Rivet's Shot wrote:

But that wouldn't apply to Newton's 'Law' of gravitation.  It's been
called a 'law', but there is no underlying explanation of what gravity
'is'.  It merely provides a formula that fits all the observations of
gravity's effects up to that time.

But as science has progressed it doesn't work in all instances of
prediction (Mercury's orbit has purtabations that are not explained by
Newton, only Einstein).  Yet still popularly referred to as a 'law'.


I think the really big difference is that 'law' was used much more
freely a couple of hundred years ago.  So many scientific discoveries of
that era were announced and adapted as 'law's. (Newton's, Snell's)

Modern scientific methods have grown and matured and we no longer call
new discoveries about how the universe works, 'laws'.  Many times,
scientists have found that an idea about how the universe works is good
at first, but often breaks down under different circumstances.  So they
are very leery about calling anything a 'law' anymore.  (when was the
last time any idea has been conferred 'law' status?)

In older times (i.e. Newton's day), scientists were more sure of
themselves and not as cautious.  If some new idea explained everything
that was known about a subject up to that point, the idea was called a
'law'.

daestrom

Posted by Ahem A Rivet's Shot on November 5, 2010, 4:15 pm
 On Fri, 05 Nov 2010 11:26:31 -0400


    Very true - which is why I would tend to think of it as Newton's
theory that a law of gravitation is as he suggested.


    Indeed it is - primarily I think because that is the word Newton
used.


    I tend to think it's more that these were the first attempts at
formally and precisely describing the laws of nature. The task turned out
to be more difficult than Newton, Snell, Boyle et al. thought and their
attempts turned out to be inaccurate descriptions of the laws.


    Thing is that at least in the case of Newton the status wasn't
conferred, the word law (well lex actually) was used from the start. These
days nobody expects to actually discover the laws merely good enough
approximations.


    Another difference is that in the older days scientists believed
they were discovering the laws of nature, these days they believe they are
creating usable approximations to the laws of nature.

--
Steve O'Hara-Smith                          |   Directable Mirror Arrays
C:>WIN                                      | A better way to focus the sun
The computer obeys and wins.                |    licences available see
You lose and Bill collects.                 |    http://www.sohara.org/

Posted by Neo on December 7, 2010, 9:33 am
 
Foam (air insulator) retards air circulation and would cause moisture
problems
at the foundation/lower joist. Air insulators are best used in the
attic/roof and
on the side of the home to hold cool/warm air inside.  The least
expensive
and highest ROI  to increasing  the heat retention of a house is to
increase
the insulation (R-value) of the Attic/Roof. However, there is a point
of diminshing
returns as the R value increases from R38 and beyond.. Beyond air
insulators
like fiberglass batting - IIRC one can also install aluminum foil like
reflective sheeting
in the roof sheathing inside the attic. It's suppose to reflect the
heat back into
the house. A major heat loss area for the side of a house are the
windows,
doors, sliding glass patio door. The top of the line energy star/
efficient
windows( e.g. U factors of less than .18)  tend to be expensive with
ROI at about 10 to 20 years.

A traditional heat sink requires a  pump that transfers hot air during
the day
through a large mass which can absorb the heat energy from the air
(e.g.
stone/granite)  then during the night the air pump goes into reverse
and
pumps cold air through the heated stones to provide heated air during
the night.  For those living in colder northern climates a more
expensive
but more energy efficient geo-thermal heat pump could also be used.
For those living in more moderate climates, a less expensive heat pump
could be used.  Architectural design of heat sinks normally include
a large window area facing the south side of the building which allow
the
sun to heat up interior stonework ( e.g. interior stone wall or stone
flooring).

HTH

Walter



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