I'm sure that's right.
BTW, on an unrelated topic, can the general public or business send typical
size small or large parcels by rail in Australia ? I'd have though your network
was a bit limited. What's the preferred option ?
On Tue, 02 Sep 2008 04:31:25 +0100, Eeyore
Nope, it all goes by truck.
Rail is essentially only used for Container loads.
I imagined so. You don't have that many rails lines outside commuter areas do
The question was inspired by a twit in another group who reckons *all* freight
should travel by rail. He doesn't seem to realise that such a thing has been in
continual decline for decades. No rail parcels service exists in the UK any more
Actually there is still a rail parcel service in OZ. Of course you may
never receive what was sent.
On Tue, 02 Sep 2008 02:10:11 GMT, firstname.lastname@example.org (Mauried) wrote:
The study that I cited in my response to Eeyore has some CO2 emission
information. It is presented in terms of grams per kWh generated for an
entire system. So it seems that the data is available (but not directly in
this study) to come up with appropriate values.
At present, for a multicrystalline silicon roof-top PV system in southern
Europe, as defined in their paper, they estimate 30 g/kWh generated. Since
they define the irradiance, life span and system efficiencies, one should
be able to do the math to figure the amount per kWp.
However, they include the emissions from the electricity generation, and
indicate that with a switch to "green" electricity, the emissions would
decrease by about 1/3. (There is a US plant set up recently which is
generating their power from PV, so using green electricity is clearly a
Also, their data includes the CO2 production for the entire system, and not
for just the PV panels.
IF I've done the math correctly, and not misplaced any decimals, it appears
as if the extra cost would be no more than $.03USD per watt. Current
pricing is about $.00USD per watt
But check my math:
1 kWp at 1,700kWh/m2/yr for 30 yrs --> 51,000 kWh
30 gm/kWh --> 1.53 tonnes CO2
$0/tonne --> $0.60 per kWp or $.0306 per Wp
And assuming that a percentage of this is related to nonPV parts of the
system, the actual increment would be even less. But I also left out
efficiency issues, which would increase the number a bit. (They claimed an
efficiency of 75% for the "entire" system; but the value for just the PV
part would be better).
They estimate that future developments (and yes, I know it is difficult to
make predictions about the future), should reduce the CO2 emission to 15
gm/kWh, and switching to "green" power further reduce it to maybe 10
gm/kWh. And again, these numbers include the racks, inverters, wiring, etc
which would be subtracted if the PV mfg were paying the CO2 tax.