# Solar Heat

Posted by Randy on August 1, 2006, 3:07 am

I am planning on building a solar heater on my shop (south side), the
size would be 12'x40'. I would like to have both air and water. The air
would go to the shop (34'x54') and the water to my home (1508 sq
ft.) I live in Wisconsin, any ideas?

Posted by Zombie Wolf on August 1, 2006, 3:40 am

You would need a rather large heating area to heat the size building you are
talking about. You might do much better to just heat enough water to run
baseboard hot water heat in both. But you will need some sizeable storage
tanks for the hot water. for the shop and the house, I would estimate it
will take about 10 4 X 8 foot collectors to gather enough heat to do the
job, and 12 or 14 would not be out of line in mid - winter...
The alternative here would be to build somethng similar to a greenhouse all
along the south side of the shop and then incorporate enough thermal mass
(like masonry) in it to heat the shop, keeping in mind that on heavily
clouded days, you will get nearly no heat output from it. this of course
wpould have a concrete floor about three inches thick to begin with. The
house system would be seperate from this, and would use collectors.

Posted by nicksanspam on August 1, 2006, 10:00 am

Nice... 12' high x 40' long? With some windows near the top for shop light,
with reflective lightshelves below and a reflective ceiling?

If the shop roof's thermal conductance is 34x54/R20 = 41 Btu/h-F and
the 136' of non-collector wall has 12x136/R20 = 82, the total is 123.

And the shop is detatched from the home and the water heats the home and
maybe water for showers, after an efficient greywater heat exchanger?

NREL says 460 Btu/ft^2 of solar energy falls on the ground and 810 falls
on a south wall on an average 21.7 F December day with a 29.8 daily max
and ground reflectance Rho = 0.2 in Madison, so the average daytime temp

With Rho = 0.6, eg snow or white pebbles, the south wall would receive
810+0.5(0.6-0.2)460 = 902 Btu/ft^2. With a 70 F shop air temp, R1 Dynaglas
(\$/ft^2 corrugated greenhouse roofing in 4'x12' corrugated sheets with
a 10 year guarantee) with 90% solar transmission might collect 0.9x902
= 812 Btu/ft^2 and lose 6h(70-26)1ft^2/R1 = 264, for a net gain of 548,
ie 12x40x548 = 263K Btu/day.

If the shop is used 6h/day and it doesn't store much heat, it needs about
6h(70-26)123 = 32.5K Btu/day, which leaves 230.6K for the house, collected
at 230.6K/6h = 38.4K Btu/h. A 2'-4' deep heater with shop air in the space
between black fiberglass window screen with the top of the screen attached
to the south edge of the heater ceiling and the bottom attached near the
shop wall and 150 F air in the space under the heater ceiling might heat
150-38.4K/1600 = 126 F water with 320' of fin-tube pipe or 2 used 800 Btu/h-F
and back down a duct into the bottom of the collector, with a fan and a shop
air temp thermostat and an occupancy sensor to keep the shop 70 F.

Have you been listening to crooked masonry salesmen? :-) The wall gets most
of the low-angle winter sun, and thermal mass raises the cost and makes
the "greenhouse" cool all the time, vs hot during the day and cold at night.
If 12x40x812 = 389.8K Btu = 24h(T-21.7)x12x40/R1+6h(T-26)123, T = 54 F. Yuck!
A cool shop, with no useful heat storage and no heat left for the house.

Nick

Posted by nicksanspam on August 2, 2006, 1:23 pm

R19 walls and an R60 roof and 102 ft^2 of R2 windows and 0.5 ACH of air
leaks and a 34x54/R60 = 31 Btu/h-F roof conductance and 102/2 = 51 for
windows with 136' of non-collector wall with (12.5x136-102)/R19 = 84 and
0.5x12.5x34x54/60 = 191 for 191 cfm of air leaks totals 357 Btu/h-F.

If the shop is used 6h/day and it doesn't store much heat, it needs about
6h(70-26)357 = 94.2K Btu/day, which leaves 168.8K for the house, collected
at 168.8K/6h = 28.1K Btu/h. A 2'-4' deep heater with 70 F air in the space
between black fiberglass window screen with 67% open area with the top of
the screen attached to the south edge of the heater ceiling and the bottom
attached near the shop wall and 150 F air in the space under the heater
ceiling might heat 150-28.1K/1600 = 132 F water with 320' of fin-tube pipe
or 2 used 800 Btu/h-F auto radiators. Hot collector air might thermosyphon
up, travel through the radiators and then back down a duct into the bottom
of the collector, with a fan and a shop temp thermostat and an occupancy
sensor to keep the shop 70 F.

So at the top of the mesh we have 70 F air to keep the shop warm flowing
north through the mesh fighting 150 F air that wants to naturally circulate
south through the mesh, because its hot air column to the north of the mesh
is lighter than the 70 F column of air next to the glazing. If the 70 F air
weighs 0.075 lb/ft^3 and 140 F air weighs 0.075(460+70)/(460+150) = 0.065
lb/ft^3 and the heater is 12.5' high, the 150 air bouyancy force would be
12.5(0.075-0.065) = 0.0125 psf, or 0.0024 "Hg, within the range of a fan.

The shop needs 15.7K Btu/h, ie 15.7K/(150-70) = 200 cfm min, ie 0.4 cfm/ft^2
of mesh. If cfm = 27900Asqrt(dP) with A in ft^2 and dP in psf, each square
foot of mesh needs an A = 0.4/(27900sqrt(0.0125)) = 0.00013 ft^2 hole, ie
a 0.018 in^2 hole, ie a 0.15" hole. We might jab 1/4" holes with flaps using
a pencil through dark Typar mesh on a 1' grid behind the window screen and
use a smaller fan to move 10 cfm of 70 F air through the mesh when the flaps
are closed and the 200+ cfm fan isn't running.

Nick

Posted by Morris Dovey on August 1, 2006, 4:35 pm

| I am planning on building a solar heater on my shop (south side),
| the size would be 12'x40'. I would like to have both air and water.
| The air would go to the shop (34'x54') and the water to my home
| (1508 sq ft.) I live in Wisconsin, any ideas?

[1] Kind of shop (wood, metal, other)?
[2] When is shop used (work hours or evening)?
[3] Your expertise (carpentry, plumbing, control systems, other)?
[4] Shop orientation - does 54' wall face true south?
[5] Is shop attached to house?
[6] Budget?
[7] Schedule?

--
Morris Dovey
DeSoto Solar
DeSoto, Iowa USA
http://www.iedu.com/DeSoto

•
• Subject
• Author
• Date
 Re: Solar Heat Zombie Wolf 08-01-2006
 Re: Solar Heat nicksanspam 08-01-2006
 Re: Solar Heat nicksanspam 08-02-2006
 Re: Solar Heat Morris Dovey 08-01-2006
 Re: Solar Heat Randy 08-02-2006
 Re: Solar Heat nicksanspam 08-02-2006
 Re: Solar Heat Morris Dovey 08-04-2006
 Re: Solar Heat Zombie Wolf 08-02-2006
 Re: Solar Heat nicksanspam 08-02-2006
 Re: Solar Heat Zombie Wolf 08-02-2006
 Re: Solar Heat Solar Flare 08-02-2006
 Re: Solar Heat Zombie Wolf 08-02-2006
 Re: Solar Heat Zombie Wolf 08-03-2006
 Re: Solar Heat nicksanspam 08-03-2006